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The automobile industry equips vehicles with active and passive safety features

12/7/2017 5:28 PM
Adaptive cruise control, can help the car in the car flow, automatically adjust the speed to ensure the safety distance with the car before the automatic cruise
    Demand for vision, radar and LiDAR sensors continues to grow in the automotive market as these sensors enable Advanced Assist Driving (ADAS) and Auto / Driver functions, and automakers have also raised the bar for sensor suppliers More demanding new requirements. The automotive market has always had a high demand on suppliers. OEMs in order to implement ADAS Common Rail and autopilot technologies expect the sensors to be smaller, faster, and less expensive while increasing safety. ADAS generally includes a variety of safety features such as automatic emergency braking, lane monitoring and obstacle warning.

   Radar is an obstacle detection technology for blind spot detection and other safety functions. In recent years, the size of the radar module has been greatly reduced, and its heat dissipation requirements are also getting higher and higher. According to Thomas Wilson, product line manager of NXP, 'the market demands higher and lower performance requirements of the radar Shrinking and therefore cost pressures are increasing. 'Radar modules used in automobiles are relatively clumsy systems and contain multiple chips based on different technologies. As a result, Infineon, NXP, Renesas, and TI (Texas Instruments) are working on the integration of multiple components on the same device in pursuit of smaller size and lower cost Integrated radar chipset. Although these radar chipsets can target many different ADAS applications, they also represent a new design trend. IC manufacturers will no longer use a variety of different processes to manufacture a variety of chips, but the standard 45nm and 28nm CMOS process to integrate radar devices. Of course, other optional processes include the 22nm bulk silicon process and the FD-SOI (fully depleted silicon-on-insulator) process.

   Another core technology for ADAS and autopilot, a technique that uses pulsed lasers to measure target distances, is also moving from bulky mechanical rotary scanning systems to solid-state units that integrate more components and smaller sizes , To reduce the high manufacturing costs. The radar industry is developing the next generation of high-resolution radar to replace expensive LiDARs, though LiDAR developers are not idle either. There is currently no single technology that meets all ADAS or automatic / driverless requirements. Today, some cars have integrated advanced vision and radar systems. Next, they may also be equipped with LiDARs, which means vision systems, radar and LiDAR technologies will coexist harmoniously over time to work together on the automotive ADAS and future autopilot functions. Every technology has its advantages and shortcomings. 'LiDAR is a much more expensive sensor system than vision and radar, but it is more accurate in target recognition, but LiDAR also has its limitations in harsh climatic conditions such as snow, rain and fog.' Jim Feldhan, president of Semico Research, said: 'The radar does not seem to be affected Common Rail Nozzle by weather conditions, but the radar can not pinpoint the size and shape of the target as LiDAR does.' To make safer cars, car makers are in desperate need These environment-aware technologies specifically for vehicle safety. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration statistics, 94% of serious vehicle accidents are caused due to driver's operational errors.
    Each major area has its own NCAP standard. The basic NCAP standards include a variety of ADAS technologies such as adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, lane assist, lane keeping and more. Adaptive cruise control, can help the car in the car flow, automatically adjust the speed to ensure the safety distance with the car ahead, automatic cruise. Automatic emergency braking function, the vehicle can be aware of the possibility of a collision accident, automatic vehicle braking. Lane keeping functions help keep the car cruising in one lane and avoiding unsafe lane changes. On the other hand, the on-line assist function detects whether there are vehicles or other obstructions at the rear or the side when the vehicle turns or changes lanes and issues warnings or brakes the driver. NCAP road map to promote the integration of more sensors in the car. Automatic emergency braking, which requires both a camera and a radar sensor, has begun to shift from super-luxury cars to more mid-range models. In addition to NCAP, carmakers are also moving to another path, including autonomous vehicles, and autonomous driving technology is also driving demand for cameras, LiDARs and radar. Although, in ten years or more, fully autonomous vehicles do not become mainstream. Any kind of ADAS technology or autopilot technology is just part of the autopilot infrastructure that must work together seamlessly. Advanced vision systems are at the core of autonomous driving. 'In recent years, camera-based sensors have been able to provide a wide range of ranging functions such as road signs, lane departure warnings, near and far light control, parking assistance and driver status monitoring,' said Senior Vice President, CMOS Image Sensor Business Unit TowerJazz Said Avi Strum, general manager.

   The camera still can not provide all the security features. Mobileye and other vendors are convinced that camera-based sensors provide a complete ADAS solution, while camera-based sensors sense the surrounding with superior resolution in brightly lit conditions, but in the dark, rain, fog, The harsh environment of snow, the performance of such sensors will be substantially decreased. This means there is still much room for camera-based sensors to improve, especially in dynamic range and near-infrared sensitivity. Radars are also one of the core technologies in ADAS and autopilot. In short, by transmitting electromagnetic waves in the millimeter-wave range, the radar reflects and encounters obstacles and is captured by the radar system, which calculates the distance, speed and angle of the obstacle. Installed in the car before and after the two corners of the short range radar module can be used for lane detection, lane keeping and other related functions. At the same time, the parallel accessibility features a short-range radar mounted on the front side bumper. In order to get the vehicle more advanced ADAS function, short range radar is from 24GHz to more high-performance 79GHz replacement. 79GHz is used to avoid interference with the forward 77GHz long range radar.

  LiDAR technology has been improving. This technology can be applied to autonomous vehicles, but not limited to this application. 'People will see LiDAR working with camera and radar in conjunction with the ADAS system,' said Anand Gopalan, chief technology officer of Velodyne, the world's best-known car LiDAR supplier. LiDAR manufacturers integrate up to 64 lasers into the system to increase the amount of emitted photons. Each time a laser emits 1 billion photons, it can collect about 1,000 reflected photons. At this point, photodetectors Common Rail Injector in the system are used to sense and capture the photon signals reflected within a certain field of view. Therefore, sunlight and weather conditions may affect the detector's signal-to-noise ratio. The photodetector calculates the distance between the LiDAR and the object by calculating the time of flight of the reflected photon. 'Signal processing is complex and requires the use of high-density processing units such as FPGAs or processors,' said Gopalan of Velodyne.

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